It’s Halloween! Granted, it’s been a little hard to contemplate this awesome holiday what with all of the hurricanes and all, but now we can turn our attention on to more Halloween-y things like this:
This is an image of a portion of vdB 141, also known as the Ghost Nebula, and it really does look like a ghost! You’ll want to click the image or better yet, get the suuuppper spoooky full-resolution version (warning, it’s all spooky and ghosty and stuff).
vdB 141 is an example of a reflection nebula . Unlike an emission nebula, the stars within aren’t hot enough to ionize the gas cloud, so the cloud itself doesn’t glow, but rather scatters and reflects the starlight. This is the exact same phenomenon that gives us blue skies and red sunsets here on earth.
The image was captured in 2009 using the Mosaic Camera on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory outside of Tucson, Arizona. The nebula is located in the constellation of Cepheus.
As an added bonus, here’s another well-known reflection nebula – the Witch’s Head Nebula near Rigel in the constellation of Orion:
A long, long time ago in a galaxy not that far away at all as a matter of fact, a cluster of stars formed inside a great cloud of gas and dust. Among them were giant stars whose masses may have been between 10-30 times the mass of our Sun. These behemoth stars lived fast, fusing their once hydrogen cores into heavier and heavier elements until one day they could no longer sustain themselves and they explodeed as supernovae.
Like TNT exploding in a mine, the supernovae sent out powerful shock waves that blew a giant bubble in the cloud 1,200 light-years across. Behold:
The colors correspond to different wavelengths imaged by the different observatories. Red stands in for infrared emission captured by Spitzer. This is cooler gas and dust and is relatively “intact” surrounding the bubble.
Yellow corresponds to imagery from the Max-Planck-ESO telescope and shows hot ionized gas. This gas is glowing from the ultraviolet radiation from hot, young stars, in much the same way that gas glows in a florescent light bulb.
Finally, we have the really high-energy stuff, the x-ray emission (shown here in blue), taken by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. In fact, let’s take a look at just the Chandra X-Ray image:
Here’s where the story gets really interesting. For a long time, it was assumed that the bubbles were created by winds from the hot stars that eventually went supernova. That makes sense. After all, the more massive and hotter they are, the more mass they lose as stellar winds.
Well, the winds from these stars certainly did “blow” out the bubbles. However, it turns out there is a lot more x-ray radiation coming from inside the bubbles than was expected from just the winds alone.
So where is this extra x-ray radiation coming from? Dr. Anne Jaskot from the University of Michigan and her team used Chandra to find out. It turns out that there are two extra sources of x-ray radiation: the supernova shock waves striking the walls of the cavities, and hot material evaporating from the cavity walls. In fact, if you compare the two images above, you can actually see the X-ray radiation coming off the walls of the bubbles. Cool!
In other words, the supernova explosions themselves generated a lot of high-energy x-ray radiation by slamming into the walls of the bubble making the walls so hot they give off x-rays as the shock waves passed through.
Moreover, these shockwaves, created in the supernovae of these massive stars, compressed the surrounding gas. This in turn triggered the formation of even more stars.
And there it is, the cycle of stellar life: the ashes of stars are blown along the expanding wave of a cosmic bubble, and seed the next generation of stars.
Stars form inside dense clouds of gas and dust. They start out as small eddies bound by mutual gravitation, and continue to grow more massive and hotter until, finally, a new star ignites:
Is that beautiful or what? This is an image of Sharpless 2-292, a region of a larger complex called the Seagull Nebula. It was taken by the 2.2-meter telescope at the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) La Silla Observatory in Chile.
And what an image it is! At the center of Sharpless 2-292 is a bright star called HD 53367, a newly formed monster weighing in at 20 times the mass of our Sun! HD 53367 actually has a smaller companion star that is “only” 5 times more massive than the Sun. We can’t actually see the companion in this image because it too close to its giant, about 1.7AU* apart.
Still, this giant is having quite an effect on the surrounding nebula. HD 53367 is so bright it floods the gas in the surrounding nebula with so much radiation, it strips the hydrogen in the gas of their electrons. In other words, the hydrogen becomes ionized. Eventually, those electrons are recaptured by hydrogen ions and the gas glows a rich red color, much like a neon sign.
The nebula also features a dark lane of thick dust, which stands out in silhouette against the glowing hydrogen. But it’s not all dark – if you look closely at the image you’ll find that blue haze “hanging” about throughout the nebula. This is due to blue light from the star being scattered by tiny particles in the dust itself.
This nebula is really part of a larger complex called the Seagull Nebula:
HD 53367 and its immediate surroundings form the “head” of the Seagull (ok, use your imagination!).
What’s great about images like this – apart from their sheer gorgeousness – is that they give us a front-row seat to the process of star formation and their impact on the very nurseries in which they formed.
* An AU is short for Astronomical Unit, which is the distance between the Sun and Earth, so the two stars are separated by a little less than twice the Earth-Sun distance, which is too close to each other to be seen 3700 light-years from Earth.